What are the “dangerous goods” in international air transport?

Class 9 dangerous goods

“Dangerous goods” means materials or articles with dangerous characteristics that, if not properly controlled, may pose potential hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure and / or its means of transport.

The transport of dangerous goods is controlled and managed by various management systems and operates at the national and international levels. Prominent regulatory frameworks for the transport of dangerous goods include the “United Nations Recommendation on the transport of dangerous goods”, “ICAO technical rules”, “IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations” and the “International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code” of the international maritime organization. In general, these regulatory systems regulate the handling, packaging, labeling and transportation of dangerous goods.

The regulatory framework incorporates an integrated hazard classification system to provide classification of dangerous goods. The classification of dangerous goods is divided into nine categories according to the types of dangerous goods or goods. Click the course to read more details;



Flammable liquid

Flammable solid

Oxidizing substance

Toxic and infectious substances

Radioactive material

Corrosive substances

Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods

The complexity of many dangerous goods systems and dangerous goods classification and regulations around the world makes compliance a particularly difficult task. However, as a logistics company specializing in dangerous goods, DGI can provide customized solutions for all customers’ dangerous goods needs. DGI is proficient in all nine categories of dangerous goods and provides a range of services, including packaging, packaging, labeling, freight forwarding and training.

Class 1 – explosives

Explosives are materials or articles that can burn or explode rapidly due to chemical reactions.

Item 1.1: substances and articles with explosion hazard

Item 1.2: substances and articles with projection hazard but not large-scale explosion hazard

Item 1.3: substances and articles with fire hazard, slight explosion hazard or slight projection hazard or both

Item 1.4: substances and articles without major hazards; There is only a small risk of ignition or start-up during transportation, and any impact is mainly limited to packaging

Item 1.5: very insensitive substances with explosion hazard

Item 1.6: extremely insensitive items, no explosion hazard

Reasons for supervision

Explosives can cause catastrophic damage by force and / or other harmful amounts of heat, light, sound, gas or smoke through chemical reactions that produce gases at temperature, pressure and speed.

Common transport explosives

Ammunition / box

Fireworks / fireworks


Blasting cap / detonator



Explosive charge (blasting, demolition, etc.)

Detonating line

Airbag inflator



TNT / TNT composition

RDX / RDX composition

PETN / PETN composition

Class 2 – gas

Gases are defined by the regulations on dangerous goods as substances with a vapor pressure of 300 kPa or higher at 50 ° C or completely gaseous at 20 ° C at standard atmospheric pressure, as well as articles containing these substances. This category includes compressed gas, liquefied gas, dissolved gas, frozen liquefied gas, mixture of one or more gases and one or more other categories of substance vapor, and articles containing gases and aerosols.

Division 2.1 flammable gases

Item 2.2: non flammable and non-toxic gas

Item 2.3: toxic gas

Reasons for supervision

Gas can cause serious harm due to its flammability, asphyxiation ability, oxidation ability and / or toxicity or corrosivity to human body.

Common transport gases:


Compressed air

Hydrocarbon pneumatic device

Fire Extinguisher

Air cylinder

Fertilizer ammoniation solution

Pesticide gas

refrigerant gas


Acetylene / oxyacetylene

carbon dioxide

Helium / helium compound

Hydrogen / hydrogen compound

Oxygen / oxygen compound

Nitrogen / nitrogen compounds

natural gas

associated gas

petroleum gas





dimethyl ether

Propylene / propylene


Class 3 – flammable liquids

Flammable liquid is defined as liquid by dangerous goods. Liquid mixture or liquid containing solid in solution or suspension releases flammable vapor (flash point) when the temperature is not higher than 60-65 ° C, transports substances whose liquid temperature is equal to or higher than its flash point or transported in liquid at high temperature, and releases flammable vapor at the maximum transportation temperature or lower than the maximum transportation temperature.

There is no subdivision in class 3 flammable liquids.

Reasons for supervision

Flammable liquids can cause serious hazards due to their volatility, flammability and the possibility of causing or spreading serious deflagration.

Common transportation of flammable liquids

Acetone / acetone oil

an adhesive

Paint / varnish / varnish


Perfume products

Gasoline / gasoline

Diesel dye

Aviation fuel

Liquid biofuel

Coal tar / coal tar oil fraction

Petroleum crude oil

Petroleum fraction

Gas oil

Shale oil

Heating oil





Carbamate insecticides

Organochlorine pesticides

Organophosphorus pesticide

Copper based pesticides












Class 4 – Flammable solids; Substances responsible for natural combustion; Substances that are flammable when in contact with water

Flammable solids are substances that are easy to burn or may cause or contribute to fire through friction under the conditions encountered in transportation, and self reactive substances or solid desensitized explosives that are prone to strong exothermic reaction. It also includes substances that are easy to heat spontaneously or in contact with air under normal transportation conditions, so they are easy to catch fire and flammable gases or substances in contact with water.

Item 4.1: flammable solids

Item 4.2: substances prone to spontaneous combustion

Item 4.3: substances that will release flammable gases in contact with water

Reasons for supervision

Flammable solids can cause serious hazards due to their volatility, flammability and the possibility of causing or spreading serious deflagration.

Common transportation of flammable solids; Spontaneous combustibles; ‘ Wet hazardous’ materials

alkali metal

metal powder

Aluminum phosphide

Sodium battery

Sodium cell



Calcium carbide



Activated carbon



Dried coconut meat

Seed cake

Oily cotton waste

Desensitized explosive

Oily fabric

Oily fiber


Iron oxide (spent)

Iron sponge / direct reduction iron (flower)






Class 5 – oxidizing substances; Organic peroxide

Oxidants are defined by hazardous materials regulations as substances that may cause or contribute to combustion, usually producing oxygen through redox chemical reactions. Organic peroxides can be considered

Oxidants are defined by hazardous materials regulations as substances that may cause or contribute to combustion, usually producing oxygen through redox chemical reactions. Organic peroxides are substances that can be considered as derivatives of hydrogen peroxide, in which one or two hydrogen atoms of chemical structure have been replaced by organic groups.

Item 5.1: oxidizing substances

Item 5.1: organic peroxide

Reasons for supervision

Although the oxidant itself is not necessarily combustible, it can produce oxygen and cause or promote the combustion of other materials. Organic peroxides are thermally unstable and may emit heat while undergoing exothermic autocatalytic decomposition. In addition, organic peroxides may be easy to explode and decompose, burn rapidly, be sensitive to impact or friction, react dangerously with other substances or cause damage to eyes.

Common transport oxidants; Organic peroxide

Chemical oxygen generator

Ammonium nitrate fertilizer







Aluminum nitrate

Ammonium dichromate

ammonium nitrate

Ammonium persulfate

Calcium hypochlorite

Calcium nitrate

Calcium peroxide

hydrogen peroxide

Magnesium peroxide

Lead nitrate

Lithium hypochlorite

Potassium chlorate

potassium nitrate

Potassium chlorate

Potassium perchlorate

potassium permanganate

Sodium nitrate

Sodium persulfate

Category 6 – toxic substances; Infectious substance

Toxic substances refer to substances that may cause death or serious injury or endanger human health by swallowing, inhalation or skin contact. Infectious substances are substances known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Dangerous goods regulations define pathogens as microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, Rickettsia, parasites and fungi, or other drugs that may cause diseases in humans or animals.

Item 6.1: toxic substances

Item 6.2: infectious substances

Reasons for supervision

Toxic and infectious substances may pose a significant risk to human and animal health after exposure.

Common toxic and harmful substances; Infectious substance

Medical / biomedical waste

Clinical waste

Biological culture / sample / specimen

Medical culture / sample / specimen

Tearing gas substance

Engine fuel antiknock mixture


Carbamate pesticides







Mercaptan / mercaptan


Barium compound

Arsenic / arsenic compounds

Beryllium / beryllium compound

Lead compound

Mercury compound

Nicotine / nicotine compounds

Selenium compounds


Ammonium metavanadate







Class 7 – radioactive substances

The dangerous goods regulations define a radioactive substance as any material containing radionuclides whose active concentration and total activity exceed certain predetermined values. Radionuclides are atoms with unstable nuclei and are therefore subject to radioactive decay.

There is no breakdown in category 7 radioactive materials.

Reasons for supervision

During radioactive decay, radionuclides emit ionizing radiation, which poses a potentially serious risk to human health.

Common transport of radioactive materials

Radioactive ore

Medical isotope

Yellow cake


Mixed fission products

Surface contaminated objects

Cesium radionuclide / isotope

Radionuclide / Iridium

Americ radionuclide / isotope

Plutonium radionuclide / isotope

Radium radionuclide / isotope

Thorium radionuclide / isotope

Uranium radionuclide / isotope

Depleted uranium / depleted uranium products

Uranium hexafluoride

enriched uranium

Class 8 – corrosion

Corrosivity is a substance that degrades or decomposes other materials upon contact by chemical action.

There is no breakdown in category 8 corrosives.

Reasons for supervision

Corrosive substances can cause serious damage in contact with living tissue, or in case of leakage, damage or destruction of surrounding materials.

Common transport corrosives

Acid / acid solution


Battery fluid

Fuel cell cartridge


Fire extinguisher charging


scaling powder


Alkyl phenol









Phenol / carbonic acid

hydrofluoric acid

hydrochloric acid

sulphuric acid

nitric acid

Sludge acid

Hydrogen fluoride



Class 9 – other dangerous goods

Miscellaneous dangerous goods refer to dangerous or dangerous substances and articles not covered by other categories during transportation. This category includes but is not limited to substances harmful to the environment, substances transported at high temperatures, miscellaneous items and substances, genetically modified organisms and microorganisms, magnetized materials (depending on the method of transportation) and aviation controlled substances.

There is no breakdown in category 9 miscellaneous hazardous materials.

Reasons for supervision

Miscellaneous hazardous materials pose a wide range of potential hazards to human health and safety, infrastructure and / or its means of transport.

Miscellaneous dangerous goods normally transported

Dry ice / cardice / solid carbon dioxide

Expandable polymer beads / polystyrene beads

Ammonium nitrate fertilizer

Blue asbestos / crocidolite

Lithium ion battery

Lithium metal battery

Battery powered equipment

Battery powered vehicles

Fuel cell engine

internal-combustion engine


Magnetized material

Dangerous goods in equipment

Dangerous goods in the machine

Genetically modified organisms

Transgenic microorganism

Chemical Kit

First aid kit

Life saving equipment

Airbag module

Seat belt pretensioner

Plastic molding compound

Castor plant products

Polychlorinated biphenyls

Polychlorinated terphenyl